Herbs for Weight Loss
We have all seen patients who struggle with their weight and for whom, on taking a look at their diets and their activity levels, we conclude that their biochemical balance must be working against them. Results of tests for thyroid function, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and liver function may help us uncover precise diagnoses in some cases, but in others the hormonal and metabolic imbalances are subtle and the cause of much frustration when patients are told that everything checks out fine. Those with subtle hypothyroidism fall into this category owing to metabolic insufficiency, albeit not severe enough to fit the classic diagnostic criteria. Those with liver and digestion dysfunction may struggle with their weight because biliary insufficiency or simply congestion may lead to an inability to process fats, particularly when in tandem with intestinal atony. Furthermore, the huge and growing category of patients with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome often struggle with their weight. Therefore, some of the most successful therapies for dropping the excess weight will be multifaceted and involve improving insulin sensitivity, reducing elevated androgen levels, adopting a low glycemic index diet, and enhancing liver and digestive function—not just eating less and exercising more. Improving hormonal balance will support weight loss efforts, and losing weight will support hormonal balance in a mutually reciprocal way. Natural agents that help reduce insulin resistance are chromium, inositol (especially d-chiro-inositol), vitamin D, prickly pear cactus, Stevia, and legumes, among others. A complete list of agents that help reduce insulin resistance includes the following:
- Vitamin D
- Opuntia species (prickly pear cactus fruits)
- Legume foods and herbs
- Glycyrrhiza (licorice)
- Mahonia (Oregon grape roots)
- Stevia leaves
Opuntia Species (Prickly Pear Cactus)
Prickly pear cactus species, including Opuntia ficus subsp indica, are valuable herbal tools for improving insulin resistance. Prickly pear cactus fruits yield a beautiful magenta flesh and juice that have a delicious flavor, something like a cross between strawberries and watermelon. Modern research on Opuntia has shown that these fruits normalize and optimize basic metabolism,1,2 including normalizing blood glucose and cholesterol levels in animal models of diabetes.3 Opuntia juice lowered elevated blood glucose level,4 and diabetic animals achieved improved glucose control under the influence of Opuntia.5 A clinical trial among patients with metabolic syndrome investigated the efficacy of Opuntia on blood fats. Opuntia was found to improve levels of triglycerides and total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein in as little as 14 days.6 Other studies have confirmed that Opuntia can reduce blood fats7 and promote the liver and muscles to take in glucose, which not only gets the damaging fats and sugars out of the bloodstream but also assists those tissues in using (or “burning”) fats and sugars.8 Although it may take a bit of searching, you can purchase bottles of prickly pear cactus juice, which patients may use to prepare drinks and smoothies. Mix several tablespoons of the brightly colored juice with sparkling water to prepare a delicious and healthy drink, or blend with vinegar and seed or nut oils to prepare a salad dressing.
Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia or Sweet Leaf)
Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia or sweet leaf), a remarkably sweet-tasting leafy herb from the South American Andes, appears to improve insulin resistance and has no calories and a glycemic index of zero.9 Therefore, Stevia is not just a natural sweetener: it is a medicine for processing sweets. Stevia is also naturally high in chromium, which contributes to its medicinal effects. The studies are few and mainly on animals, but Stevia is reported to improve insulin output from the pancreas for type 1 diabetes mellitus and to improve insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus.10,11 An animal study11 showed that Stevia protects the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas from drugs that typically harm them. Stevioside, one of the most studied compounds in Stevia, has been credited with reducing blood pressure,12 blood glucose level,13 and blood fats14 and with improving insulin production in the pancreas and insulin sensitivity in cells.15-17
Investigators found that whole Stevia leaf may reduce the synthesis of glucose in the liver by affecting enzymes involved, but the researchers reported that isolated stevioside lacked this effect.18 This finding is significant in that some commercial producers are attempting to isolate and refine the sweet-tasting compounds, such as purifying stevioside to yield a table sugar–like product. While products like purified Stevia are certainly healthier than sugar and high-fructose corn syrup and have shown some beneficial effects, it is unlikely that all the antidiabetic effects of the whole Stevia plant can be extended to its isolated molecules. It may be less aesthetically pleasing, but using finely ground whole Stevia leaf in cooking and recipes may be superior to using commercially processed Stevia products.
Commiphora mukul (Guggul)
The steroidal compounds in Commiphora mukul (guggul), the guggulsterones, lower elevated blood fats and sugars through several different mechanisms, including improvement in the liver’s metabolism of fat, enhanced uptake of iodine by the thyroid, and increased production of thyroid hormones.19 Animal investigations have also shown that guggulsterones inhibit the development and maturation of fat-storing cells, called adipocytes.19 Guggulsterones exert direct inhibitory effects on adipocytes, inducing decreased synthesis of new cells, reduced fat accumulation in existing cells, and increased destruction (apoptosis) of fat cells.20 Specific proteins associated with adipocyte functions are suppressed by Commiphora.
Hibiscus sabdariffa and other species of Hibiscus are beautiful flowering shrubs of tropical regions, whose flowers produce a sour-tasting tea and are emerging as having numerous vascular and medicinal benefits. Hibiscus has the highest chromium content of any plant known, which may contribute to its blood glucose–balancing effects. A clinical trial involving 60 patients with diabetes evaluated the effects of H sabdariffa tea on lipid and lipoprotein levels.21 Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups and were given black tea or Hibiscus tea twice daily for a month. The patients receiving Hibiscus tea showed significantly lower lipid levels, without significant differences in lipoprotein levels compared with the group receiving black tea.
Berberine Alkaloids for Metabolic Support
Mahonia vulgaris (formerly Berberis vulgaris) and Hydrastis canadensis are well-known bitter roots that are used to improve digestive and liver function, and both may support weight loss efforts. Both Mahonia and Hydrastis contain the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine, which has been shown to improve insulin resistance in human investigations.22 Clinical trials among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have shown significant reductions in blood glucose, fats, and insulin as evidence of improved insulin response and general metabolism with berberine.23 Researchers in China reported that berberine lowers blood fats by numerous complex effects on cellular enzymes, insulin signals inside cells, and other direct effects on fat cells.24
The Legume Family (All Types of Beans)
Legumes offer many health benefits for blood glucose level, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.25 Legumes in the diet and medicinal herbs in the legume family are beneficial for insulin resistance, hormonal balance, and improved blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Legumes contain fiber, choline, magnesium, lecithin, saponins, and other beneficial compounds, which have been investigated together and individually. Legumes contain d-chiro-inositol (also found in lecithin), and both d-chiro-inositol and the related pinitol enhance the reception of insulin at the cell membranes. Pinitol may be converted to d-chiro-inositol in the body. Pinitol from soy has been shown to support high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and to promote antioxidant enzymes in the liver.26 Legumes and leguminous herbs may supply these inositols and, when eaten on a daily basis, can help those with liver problems, insulin resistance, and blood glucose and cholesterol elevations.
Many Leguminous Herbs May Support Weight Loss
Pueraria tuberosa has been shown to support the reception of insulin at cell membrane receptors and transmission of the signal inside the cell.27 A Chinese species of Pueraria, Pueraria thomsonii, has also been demonstrated to have the ability to reduce insulin resistance.28
Astragalus membranaceus (Milk Vetch)
Astragalus membranaceus (milk vetch) may enhance insulin response in cells.29 Astragalus may also improve high blood glucose level by helping the liver and the muscles take up glucose and use it for fuel or convert it to less harmful storage forms.30 The polysaccharides in A membranaceus are credited with an ability to enhance insulin signaling pathways in muscle cells,31 and a small clinical trial reported reduced insulin resistance in patients with diabetes who received Astragalus.32
Medicago species, such as alfalfa (another legume family herb), contain saponins33 and d-chiro-inositol. Medicago has been a traditional folkloric herbal remedy for diabetes, and modern research has suggested possible enhancement of glucose metabolism with the use of Medicago sativa.34
A saponin in Glycyrrhiza (licorice) called glycyrrhizic acid demonstrated an ability to improve insulin resistance and fat metabolism in animal models of metabolic syndrome.35 Glycyrrhiza has been found to reduce inflammation and support function in animal models of diabetic kidney damage,36 to improve insulin sensitivity and decrease fat deposition in tissues,35 and to suppress abdominal fat accumulation.37
Trigonella foenum subsp graecum (Fenugreek)
Trigonella foenum subsp graecum (fenugreek) is another legume family plant credited with improving glucose metabolism. One study38 reported that Trigonella lowered blood glucose level in animals with type 1 diabetic mellitus “almost” equally to insulin itself, and another study39 found that it lowered blood glucose level in animals with type 2 diabetes mellitus equally to metformin. Trigonella improves glucose tolerance and reduces elevated blood fats.40 A clinical study41 investigated the effects of Trigonella on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes who were not responding well to sulfonylurea drugs. The study participants were divided into 2 groups; half were given Trigonella and the other half a placebo for 12 weeks. The group receiving Trigonella was reported to have improved fasting blood glucose levels, enhanced glucose control after eating, and better glycated hemoglobin level.
Finally, I close with a recipe for a high-chromium metabolic support tea:
- Medicago leaves (3 oz)
- Astragalus roots (3 oz), shredded
- Hibiscus flowers (3 oz)
- Berberis roots (2 oz), finely shredded
- Glycyrrhiza roots (2 oz), shredded
- Stevia leaves (1 oz)
- Steep 1 tablespoon of the tea mixture per 1 cup of hot water.
- Baños G, Pérez-Torres I, El Hafidi M. Medicinal agents in the metabolic syndrome. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2008;6(4):237-252.
- Cefalu WT, Ye J, Wang ZQ. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2008;8(2):78-81.
- Hahm SW, Park J, Son YS. Opuntia humifusa stems lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Res. 2011;31(6):479-487.
- Alarcon-Aguilar FJ, Valdes-Arzate A, Xolalpa-Molina S, et al. Hypoglycemic activity of two polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia ficus–indica and O. streptacantha. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2003;46:139-142.
- Ibañez-Camacho R, Roman-Ramos R. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus. Arch Invest Med (Mex). 1979;10(4):223-230.
- Linarès E, Thimonier C, Degre M. The effect of NeOpuntia on blood lipid parameters: risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (syndrome X). Adv Ther. 2007;24(5):1115-1125.
- Oh PS, Lim K. Glycoprotein (90 kDa) isolated from Opuntia ficus–indica var. saboten MAKINO lowers plasma lipid level through scavenging of intracellular radicals in Triton WR-1339–induced mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29(7):1391-1396.
- Ennouri M, Fetoui H, Bourret E, Zeghal N, Guermazi F, Attia H. Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica, 2: influence of seed supplemented diet on rats. Bioresour Technol. 2006;97(16):2136-2140.
- Goyal SK, Samsher, Goyal RK. Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) a bio-sweetener: a review. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010;61(1):1-10.
- Chang JC, Wu MC, Liu IM, Cheng JT. Increase of insulin sensitivity by stevioside in fructose-rich chow-fed rats. Horm Metab Res. 2005;37(10):610-616.
- Misra H, Soni M, Silawat N, Mehta D, Mehta BK, Jain DC. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011;3(2):242-248.
- Ulbricht C, Isaac R, Milkin T, et al. An evidence-based systematic review of stevia by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2010;8(2):113-127.
- Kujur RS, Singh V, Ram M, et al. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacognosy Res. 2010;2(4):258-263.
- Park JE, Cha YS. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extract supplementation improves lipid and carnitine profiles in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90(7):1099-1105.
- Dyrskog SE, Jeppesen PB, Colombo M, Abudula R, Hermansen K. Preventive effects of a soy-based diet supplemented with stevioside on the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Metabolism. 2005;54(9):1181-1188.
- Chen TH, Chen SC, Chan P, Chu YL, Yang HY, Cheng JT. Mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of stevioside, a glycoside of Stevia rebaudiana. Planta Med. 2005;71(2):108-113.
- Jeppesen PB, Gregersen S, Rolfsen SE, et al. Antihyperglycemic and blood pressure–reducing effects of stevioside in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat. Metabolism. 2003;52(3):372-378.
- Ferreira EB, de Assis Rocha Neves F, da Costa MA. Comparative effects of Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stevioside on glycaemia and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Planta Med. 2006;72(8):691-696.
- Sharma B, Salunke R, Srivastava S, Majumder C, Roy P. Effects of guggulsterone isolated from Commiphora mukul in high fat diet induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47(10):2631-2639.
- Rayalam S, Yang JY, Della-Fera MA, Park HJ, Ambati S, Baile CA. Anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol plus guggulsterone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Med Food. 2009;12(4):846-853.
- Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Jalali-Khanabadi BA, Afkhami-Ardekani M, Fatehi F. Effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on lipid profile and lipoproteins in patients with type II diabetes. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(8):899-903.
- Wei W, Zhao H, Wang A, et al. A clinical study on the short term effect of berberine in comparison to metformin on the metabolic characteristics of women with polycystic ovary syndrome [published online ahead of print October 21, 2011]. Eur J Endocrinol. doi:10.1530/EJE-11-0616. Medline: 22019891
- Zhang H, Wei J, Xue R, et al. Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression. Metabolism. 2010;59(2):285-292.
- Zhang Y, Li X, Zou D, et al. Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(7):2559-2565.
- Abete I, Goyenechea E, Zulet MA, Martínez JA. Obesity and metabolic syndrome: potential benefit from specific nutritional components. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21(suppl 2):B1-B15.
- Choi MS, Lee MK, Jung UJ, et al. Metabolic response of soy pinitol on lipid-lowering, antioxidant and hepatoprotective action in hamsters fed-high fat and high cholesterol diet. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53(6):751-759.
- Dey D, Pal BC, Biswas T, et al. A lupinoside prevented fatty acid induced inhibition of insulin sensitivity in 3T3 L1 adipocytes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;300(1-2):149-157.
- Bai HY, Zou WJ, Gao XP. Influence of Pueraria thomsonii on insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29(4):356-358.
- Xu ME, Xiao SZ, Sun YH, Ou-Yang Y, Zheng XX. Effects of astragaloside IV on pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006;27(2):229-236.
- Zou F, Mao XQ, Wang N, Liu J, Ou-Yang JP. Astragalus polysaccharides alleviates glucose toxicity and restores glucose homeostasis in diabetic states via activation of AMPK. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30(12):1607-1615.
- Liu M, Wu K, Mao X, Wu Y, Ouyang J. Astragalus polysaccharide improves insulin sensitivity in KKAy mice: regulation of PKB/GLUT4 signaling in skeletal muscle. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(1):32-37.
- Chao M, Zou D, Zhang Y, et al. Improving insulin resistance with traditional Chinese medicine in type 2 diabetic patients. Endocrine. 2009;36(2):268-274.
- Kapusta I, Stochmal A, Perrone A, Piacente S, Pizza C, Oleszek W. Triterpene saponins from barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) aerial parts. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(6):2164-2170.
- Gray AM, Flatt PR. Pancreatic and extra-pancreatic effects of the traditional anti-diabetic plant, Medicago sativa (lucerne). Br J Nutr. 1997;78(2):325-334.
- Eu CH, Lim WY, Ton SH, bin Abdul Kadir K. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet–induced obese rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:e81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2927592/?tool=pubmed. Accessed November 27, 2011.
- Kataya HH, Hamza AA, Ramadan GA, Khasawneh MA. Effect of licorice extract on the complications of diabetes nephropathy in rats. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2011;34(2):101-108.
- Nakagawa K, Kishida H, Arai N, Nishiyama T, Mae T. Licorice flavonoids suppress abdominal fat accumulation and increase in blood glucose level in obese diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27(11):1775-1778.
- Baquer NZ, Kumar P, Taha A, Kale RK, Cowsik SM, McLean P. Metabolic and molecular action of Trigonella foenum–graecum (fenugreek) and trace metals in experimental diabetic tissues. J Biosci. 2011;36(2):383-396.
- Kannappan S, Anuradha CV. Insulin sensitizing actions of fenugreek seed polyphenols, quercetin & metformin in a rat model. Indian J Med Res. 2009;129(4):401-408.
- Moorthy R, Prabhu KM, Murthy PS. Anti-hyperglycemic compound (GII) from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum Linn.) seeds, its purification and effect in diabetes mellitus. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(11):1111-1118.
- Lu FR, Shen L, Qin Y, Gao L, Li H, Dai Y. Clinical observation on Trigonella foenum–graecum L. total saponins in combination with sulfonylureas in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chin J Integr Med. 2008;14(1):56-60.
This article was originally published by Naturopathic Doctor News & Review.